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Actualizado en: Miércoles, agosto 22 2018

A pesar del descenso en el número, los migrantes desesperados a Europa enfrentan mayores peligros, informa la agencia de la ONU para los refugiados.

El número de personas que cruzan el Mar Mediterráneo para llegar a Italia desde Libia, por ejemplo, disminuyó en un 74 por ciento en los primeros tres meses de 2018 en comparación con el mismo período del año pasado.

Pero la proporción de estos migrantes que perecieron en el camino se duplicó con creces, según el informe. Los viajes desesperados.

Entre enero y marzo, una persona murió por cada persona 14 que cruzó con éxito el mar, en comparación con una muerte por cada llegada de 29 en los primeros tres meses de 2017.

Además, los que llegaron a Europa en los últimos meses llegaron a una salud extremadamente deficiente y una parte importante de ellos experimentó tráfico, tortura, violencia sexual y otros abusos antes de embarcar en Libia, dijo el informe, emitido el miércoles por la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados (UNHCR).  

Those attempting that sea journey also risk drowning aboard unstable boats, which often cram in people many times their capacity. 

“Journeys to and through Europe for refugees and migrants remain fraught with danger,” said Pascale Moreau, director of the refugee agency’s Europe Bureau, as he Introducido el informe.

He underscored the importance of swift and fair asylum procedures for those seeking international protection.

“Managing borders and offering protection to refugees in line with States’ international obligations are not mutually exclusive nor incompatible,” Mr. Moreau said.

Many of the migrants and refugees hoping to reach Europe are seeking refuge from violence and deepening economic insecurity in their home countries, in Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

While overall numbers reaching Europe were down in 2017 compared to 2016, the flow of desperate migrants to Spain climbed, and the number reaching Greece surged in the latter months of last year. 

“Asylum-seekers arriving by sea to Greece faced extended stays in overcrowded and dire conditions on Greek islands,” the report said.

UNHCR/F. Malavolta Survivors of a boat that capsized in the Mediterranean over the weekend of 18-19 April 2015 arrive in Sicily after being rescued. Hundreds are missing and feared dead.

For many, journey ends without setting foot on European soil

“When we reached Libya, the driver told us we had to pay another 1,500 dinars ($1,100) per person, so 4,500 dinars for all three,” reads the testimony of 26-year-old Daniel, who left Cameroon in 2017 along with his brother and uncle hoping to reach Europe.

“We didn’t have any more money.”

Unable to pay the asking price, the three were tortured and held captive by traffickers in Libya, he said, before they were taken to Niger where he was bound into forced labour by his captors, while his family remained hostage.

There have been reports of human traffickers exigente as much as $10,000 from individuals for transportation to Europe.

Elsewhere on the continent, increased restrictions and “push backs” facing people on the move have compelled them to take alternative and often dangerous routes to move across Europe, according to the new report.  As Hungary tightened its borders, for example, more migrants are crossing from Serbia to Romania while others move from Greece through Albania, Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina to Croatia.

UNICEF/Georgiev Walking along the train tracks connecting Greece and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, a migrant woman carries a young boy as a young girl holds on to the back of her jacket. (file photo)

High risks for women and unaccompanied children

Women, especially those travelling on their own, and unaccompanied children remain particularly exposed to risks of sexual and gender-based violence along the routes as well as in some locations within Europe, the report said.

Once children arrive in European countries, lengthy waiting periods

for asylum applications, slow family reunification processes and limited access to relocation mechanisms compound the challenges, it said.

Increased solidarity and responsibility-sharing needed

Addressing the desperate situation requires wider international support  for States at primary arrival points in Europe, such as arrangement of safe relocations.  The European Union, it suggested, should strengthen cooperation among countries within the region.

The refugee agency also called for enhanced access to safe and legal pathways for those in need of international protection, including greater commitments to resettlement, removal of obstacles  to family reunification and strengthened protection for children.

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