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Actualizado en: Cerrado miércoles, de julio de 26 2017

Observaciones del Secretario General al Foro Político de Alto Nivel sobre el Desarrollo Sostenible

Twenty years ago, when I was starting my functions as Prime Minister of Portugal, the world was surfing a wave of optimism. The Cold War had ended, technological prosperity was in full swing, the internet was spreading and there was the idea that globalisation would not only increase global wealth, but that it would trickle down and would benefit everybody in our planet.

 

Veinte años después, diría que el cuadro es mixto. Es cierto que la globalización, el progreso tecnológico han aumentado dramáticamente el comercio mundial, la riqueza mundial, es cierto que el número de pobres absolutos se ha reducido y que las condiciones de vida han mejorado en todo el mundo, pero también es cierto que la globalización y el progreso tecnológico Factores de aumento de la desigualdad. Ocho personas en el mundo tienen tanta riqueza como la mitad de la población mundial.

Al mismo tiempo, es evidente que las personas quedaron rezagadas en los cinturones de óxido de este mundo, y el desempleo juvenil se convirtió en un grave problema en diferentes regiones de nuestro planeta, no sólo socavando el futuro de esos jóvenes sino también siendo un obstáculo para la Desarrollo de sus países y en algunas situaciones que forman parte de la amenaza mundial creada por el hecho de que sin esperanza pueden ser fácilmente reclutados por organizaciones extremistas y vemos ese impacto en el terrorismo global de hoy.

Ahora bien, es cierto que esto ha generado una pérdida de confianza, pérdida de confianza entre los pueblos y el gobierno o los establecimientos políticos, entre las personas y las organizaciones internacionales como la ONU y entre la gente y la idea de la globalización en sí, Multilaterales.

Creo que es importante reconocer que hay una paradoja porque los problemas son cada vez más globales, los desafíos son cada vez más globales, no hay manera de que cualquier país pueda resolverlos por sí mismo, por lo que necesitamos respuestas globales y necesitamos una gobernanza multilateral Formas, y tenemos que ser capaces de superar este déficit de confianza, y que en mi opinión es el enorme potencial de la Agenda 2030; Porque la Agenda 2030 es una agenda que apunta a una globalización justa, es una agenda dirigida a no dejar a nadie atrás, erradicar la pobreza y crear condiciones para que la gente vuelva a confiar en no sólo sistemas políticos, sino también en formas multilaterales de gobernanza y en organizaciones internacionales como Las Naciones Unidas.

Al mismo tiempo, está claro que cuando se mira la economía de hoy, las economías globales están mejorando, probablemente más lentamente de lo que nos gustaría, pero las áreas de fragilidad también están aumentando-fragilidad política, fragilidad institucional, pero también fragilidad del desarrollo y Fragilidad social; Y las fragilidades en gran medida son responsables de muchos de los conflictos actuales y de la propagación de esos conflictos y la vinculación de esos conflictos con la amenaza mundial del terrorismo global.

And this is why it is true that the agendas of sustainable development and the agendas of preventing [conflict] and sustaining peace need to be linked. But here there is a caveat - that link should not be a pretext to move resources from development to security; on the contrary, that should make us understand the centrality of development in what we do and the need to make sure that with that centrality of development we are able to fully recognise that sustainable and inclusive development is in itself a major factor of prevention of conflict as it is a major factor for the prevention of natural disasters and other aspects in which the resilience of societies is so important today.

And indeed if one looks at the global megatrends - population growth, climate change, food insecurity, water scarcity, chaotic urbanization in certain parts of the world - it is also true that all these megatrends are interacting with each other, are stressing each other. And  we have to recognise that climate change became the main accelerator of all other factors.

This is also the moment to clearly say that the link to the Agenda 2030 of sustainable development, there must be a very strong reaffirmation of our commitment to the Paris Agreement and to its implementation with an enhanced ambition because the Paris Agreement by itself is not enough for the objectives that the world needs in relation to global warming. And this is something that I believe is very important not only because of its absolute need for mankind and the future of the planet but because it is also the right and smart thing to do. We are seeing that the green economy is becoming more and more the economy of the future, that green business is good business and those that will not bet on green economy, on green technologies, will inevitably lose or not gain economic leadership in the years to come.

Al mismo tiempo, es muy importante que reconozcamos que no sólo debemos ser capaces de responder a los problemas de aquellos que viven en sociedades y que están bajo la responsabilidad del gobierno, sino que los derechos humanos son también los derechos de las personas en el Los refugiados y los migrantes y, por lo tanto, no dejar a nadie atrás también tendrán que inspirarnos para encontrar la manera de mirar hacia la migración con una perspectiva diferente, no con una perspectiva de rechazo, pero entendiendo que también es un componente importante para resolver problemas globales y Que necesitamos encontrar más avenidas legales de migración y más maneras de respetar los derechos humanos de los migrantes para asegurarse de que no queden atrás en el mundo de hoy.

We know that the global megatrends are also making more and more people move in our world to prevent unnecessary movements, and to make sure that those movements that take place, take place in a regular way is another very important objective of not leaving anyone behind. 

And then there is a central question of funding. And I think it is important to reaffirm today very clearly that developed countries need to abide by their commitments in relation to official development aid, but that at the same time that this is not enough to fund the implementation of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). We need to create conditions to help States be able to mobilise more their own resources and that has to do, on one hand, with tax reforms within states but also on mobilising the international community to fight together tax evasion, money laundering, and illicit flows of capital that are today making that more money is coming out of developing countries that the money that goes in through official development assistance.

Y al mismo tiempo, debemos asegurarnos de que las instituciones financieras internacionales puedan aprovechar los recursos y multiplicar su capacidad para financiar la implementación de los SDGs y también ayudar a los países a tener acceso a mercados globales, mercados financieros y Para poder atraer la inversión privada sin la cual sería absolutamente imposible lograr estos objetivos. Y no sólo pensemos en los problemas de hoy, sino también en los problemas del mañana.

We are facing a fourth industrial revolution, that will have a dramatic] impact in labour markets. And this will be a problem for many developing countries that today rely on cheap manpower as their competitive advantage; and cheap manpower will probably see many jobs destroyed in the near future  with robotisation, and other forms of  automation… And at the same time a problem for many developed countries – look at the possibility that one day in a country like the US no more drivers might be necessary, no more drivers for cars, for trucks, and that is probably a very important source of employment in all societies in the world.

We need to be able to anticipate these trends, we need to be able to work together countries, international organisations, not to be reacting, but to be foreseeing what is coming and investing in education, in training, in new skills, in the adaptations of the labour markets to be able to cope with the challenges of the future. And for all that we also need to be able to reform, reform at country level, reform at the UN level and other organisations level. Countries will look in different ways depending on different situations, on a country by country basis, into their governance mechanisms, into the way they are able to guarantee the participation of citizens, of businesses and of the civil society in development objectives. In the ways they are able to fight corruption, or to guarantee not only civil and political rights, but also economic, social and cultural rights.

And as in the UN we need to be able to understand that even if the UN development system has produced many important contributions namely in the context of the implementation of the [SDGs], we are not fully ready for the new challenges of the present agenda 2030. That is why I presented to ECOSOC a first report on the reform of the UN development system. I will not be repeating here the 38 measures that are included in this first report but just say that there are a few central areas of concern. First, the idea that we need to have at country level empowered resident coordinators and more effective country teams, more coordinated and more able to deliver support to the governments according to the government strategies - because governments and countries are the leaders of the implementation of the agenda - and to be more accountable to those governments at country level. At the same time, to have this level of coordination, transparency, accountability at global level, being in this case accountable to ECOSOC and to the General Assembly of the UN and to consider that gender parity in the UN must also be an instrument in order to support gender mainstreaming, in the application of all policies that relate to the Agenda 2030 and to its objectives from the eradication of poverty to all the different areas, in the different sectors in which we need to be effective. 

And finally that funding needs to be in line with the objectives of coherence and the objectives of accountability that I have mentioned and that is why we have the idea to propose a funding compact to guarantee exactly that coherence instead of the dispersion of funding in line that are not taking into account the objectives that in each country, each government is able to put in place to achieve thesustainable development goals. 

And I think that looking at this Assembly, one can only be enthusiastic about the fact that there is a very strong commitment not only to the implementation of the agenda but a very strong affirmation of support to multilateral governance as the way to lead the 2030 Agenda respecting the leadership of member states but recognising that only working together we can rebuild the trust that is needed and we can make the Agenda 2030 that factor that brings the fair globalisation the world needs in the present times. 

Muchas gracias.

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